Anorexia Essay Conclusion

Anorexia Essay Conclusion-7
For example, the plasma levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone mostly released from the empty stomach, are increased in AN patients along all the day (Germain et al., 2009, 2010). This hormone acts centrally to increase food intake (Wren et al., 2001a,b) and food-motivated behavior (Skibicka et al., 2012), but has also been suggested to be required for the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis during severe calorie restriction (Zhao et al., 2010). Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Geracioti, T. The aim of this review is to describe the role played by ghrelin in AN focusing on its central vs. In AN patients and in rodent AN models, chronic food restriction induces profound alterations in the « ghrelin » signaling that leads to the development of inappropriate behaviors like hyperactivity or addiction to food starvation and therefore a greater depletion in energy reserves.

For example, the plasma levels of ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone mostly released from the empty stomach, are increased in AN patients along all the day (Germain et al., 2009, 2010). This hormone acts centrally to increase food intake (Wren et al., 2001a,b) and food-motivated behavior (Skibicka et al., 2012), but has also been suggested to be required for the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis during severe calorie restriction (Zhao et al., 2010). Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Geracioti, T.

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The severe weight loss observed in AN patients is accompanied by significant changes in hormones involved in energy balance, feeding behavior, and bone formation, all of which can be replicated in animals models.

Increasing evidence suggests that AN could be an addictive behavior disorder, potentially linking defects in the reward mechanism with suppressed food intake, heightened physical activity, and mood disorder. Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Gniuli, D., Liverani, E., Capristo, E., Greco, A.

The tight balance between energy demand and expenditure is fine-tuned by an adapted dialog between homeostatic and hedonic brain systems that are regulated by peripheral signals involved in feeding behavior and energy homeostasis.

Mechanisms for feeding control remain a current and crucial scientific subject for understanding the etiology and potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of food intake disorders that include obesity, on one hand, and severe forms of anorexia nervosa (AN) on the other.

The increases in plasma ghrelin levels in AN seem paradoxical in light of the restrained eating adopted by these patients and suggest an adaptive response to the disease. Leptin, neuropeptide Y, and peptide YY in long-term recovered eating disorder patients.

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In regard to the metabolic deficiencies occurring in restrictive AN (see infra), the aim of this review is to highlight the impact of ghrelin in the adaptation of the organism to chronic food restriction until it falls into exhaustion and death.

Feeding is a behavior that ensures an adequate and varied supply of nutritional substrates essential to maintain energy levels for basal metabolism, physical activity, growth, and reproduction and hence, for survival of every living organism on Earth.

In the case of mammals, that must maintain a stable body temperature, the maintenance of a high metabolic rate requires constant availability of a sufficient amount of energy stores. Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text Gnanapavan, S., Kola, B., Bustin, S.

Restrictive AN is a feeding behavior disorder for which severe chronic food restriction causes dramatic physiological and psychological effects that are detrimental for health.

AN is most prevalent in women aged of 25 years old or younger (whose BMI reaches values largely below 18.5 kg/m) and is currently the third largest cause of chronic illness in teenagers (Lucas et al., 1991).

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