Biology Essays Genetics

Biology Essays Genetics-78
Thus, the central dogma proposed by Francis Crick as early as 1958 — that DNA encodes RNA, which is translated into protein — is now considered overly simplistic.

Thus, the central dogma proposed by Francis Crick as early as 1958 — that DNA encodes RNA, which is translated into protein — is now considered overly simplistic.

Only when we are equipped with the ability to reach our own conclusions will our misconceptions be altered. DImage: Mehau Kulyk/Science Photo Library/Getty Images.

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Clues from studies examining the genomic structure of a variety of organisms suggest that much of human uniqueness lies not in our number of genes, but instead in our regulatory control over when and where certain genes are expressed.

Additional examination of different organisms has revealed that all genomes are more complex and dynamic than previously thought.

"Half of your DNA is determined by your mother's side, and half is by your father.

So, if you seem to look exactly like your mother, perhaps some DNA that codes for your body and how your organs run was copied from your father's genes."So close, yet so far.

Still other diseases, like Down syndrome, are linked to chromosomal aberrations that can be identified through cytogenetic techniques that examine chromosome structure and number.

Our understanding in all these fields has blossomed in recent years.

Using molecular approaches, information about mutation rates, and other tools, scientists continue to add more detail to phylogenetic trees, which tell us about the relationships between the marvelous variety of organisms that have existed throughout the planet's history.

Examining how different processes shape populations through the culling or maintenance of deleterious or beneficial alleles lies at the heart of the field of population genetics.

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