Manufacturing a “war” between science and religion was part of their professionalization campaign.
Larsen explains: The purpose of the war was to discredit clergymen as suitable figures to undertake scientific work in order that the new breed of professionals would have an opportunity to fill in the gap for such work created by eliminating the current men of science.
Rather, the opposition to anesthetics during childbirth came from medical professionals, not from ministers, and for scientific, not religious, men like Dickson and Draper—along with English biologist T. Huxley, who championed Darwinism and coined the term “agnostic”—manufacture these historical myths and this overall legend of perpetual conflict?
In the mid-nineteenth century there was no separate profession of science.
Galileo agreed and confessed that he had given stronger arguments to the heliocentric proponent in his dialogue than to the geocentric champion.
But he insisted that he did not do so because he himself believed in heliocentrism, Kelly said.After one day in prison, his punishment was commuted to “villa arrest” for the rest of his life. In his later years Galileo insisted on the truth of the geocentric solar system, Kelly said.The story that after he formally renounced the motion of the earth at his sentencing he muttered, “And yet it moves,” is a romantic invention of a later generation.Sixteen years after his first encounter with the church Galileo published his “Dialogue on the Two World Systems” in 1632, and the pope, Urban VIII, ordered another investigation against him.This time he was prosecuted, following the usual methods of the Roman Inquisition.But four centuries ago, the idea of a heliocentric solar system was so controversial that the Catholic Church classified it as a heresy, and warned the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei to abandon it.Many people believe that Galileo was hounded by the church for almost two decades, that he openly maintained a belief in heliocentrism, and that he was only spared torture and death because his powerful friends intervened on his behalf.Admitting otherwise would have increased the penance he was given, but would not have endangered his life, since he agreed to renounce the heresy — and in fact it would have spared him even the threat of torture.” This year marks the 400th anniversary of the beginning of the Catholic Church’s investigation into Galileo.When first summoned by the Roman Inquisition in 1616, Galileo was not questioned but merely warned not to espouse heliocentrism.“We can only guess at what he really believed,” said Kelly, who for his research undertook a thorough examination of the judicial procedure used by the church in its investigation of Galileo.“Galileo was clearly stretching the truth when he maintained at his trial in 1633 that after 1616 he had never considered heliocentrism to be possible.