Critical Thinking Exam

He established the method of questioning beliefs, closely inspecting assumptions and relying on evidence and sound rationale.

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Socrates established the fact that one cannot depend upon those in "authority" to have sound knowledge and insight.

He demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational.

In the ‘second wave’ of critical thinking, as defined by Kerry S. 1), many authors moved away from the logocentric mode of critical thinking that the ‘first wave’ privileged, especially in institutions of higher learning.

Walters summarizes logicism as "the unwarranted assumption that good thinking is reducible to logical thinking".

It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use.

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It entails effective communication and problem-solving abilities as well as a commitment to overcome native egocentrism The earliest documentation of critical thinking are the teachings of Socrates recorded by Plato.

"A logistic approach to critical thinking conveys the message to students that thinking is legitimate only when it conforms to the procedures of informal (and, to a lesser extent, formal) logic and that the good thinker necessarily aims for styles of examination and appraisal that are analytical, abstract, universal, and objective." As the ‘second wave’ took hold, scholars began to take a more inclusive view of what constituted as critical thinking.

Rationality and logic are still widely accepted in many circles as the primary examples of critical thinking. Walters (Re-thinking Reason, 1994) argues that rationality demands more than just logical or traditional methods of problem solving and analysis or what he calls the "calculus of justification" but also considers "cognitive acts such as imagination, conceptual creativity, intuition and insight" (p. These "functions" are focused on discovery, on more abstract processes instead of linear, rules-based approaches to problem-solving.

His method of questioning is now known as "Socratic questioning" and is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy.

In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need for thinking for clarity and logical consistency.

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