In order to mitigate the severe performance deterioration in larger size DSSC solar cells, the use of anodized Ti O₂ nanotubes was introduced on Ti foil.Instead of FTO glass, the photoanode was made of Ti foil.An early version of a DSSC fabricated by O’Regan and Grätzel used ruthenium-based dye and 10-μm-thick porous Ti O nanoparticle films for the photoelectrode .Tags: Software Engineering Master ThesisEssay On Medical CareApa Style Essay TemplateScientific Research Proposal ExampleEssay About My Hobby Reading NovelsSickle Cell Research PaperEssay Political ScienceHurricane Research PaperBusiness Development Plan Example
DSSCs provide several advantages, such as low price-to-performance ratio, low processing cost, ability to work at wide angles and low intensities of incident light, mechanical robustness, light weight, and aesthetically appealing transparent design.
DSSCs have a number of remarkable properties that allow them to be used for several niche applications; they are low in weight and able to display various colors and transparency, and they work effectively in a broad range of wavelengths [8, 9].
During the sintering at 450–500°C, which crystallizes the mesoporous Ti O nanoparticles, the sheet resistance of ITO increases and affects the energy conversion efficiency of the DSSCs.
However, the sheet resistance of FTO is independent of the temperature up to 500°C, which makes it favorable for applications that utilize the sintering step.
Amongst all the renewable energy sources, solar energy has been regarded as very promising due to the abundance of its resource—sunlight—and the fact that it yields no harmful byproducts.
The amount of solar energy that radiates upon earth in one hour is equivalent to the annual energy need of mankind .A significant improvement in the performance in the DSSC was obtained from the DWCNTs-Ti O₂ photoanode.Comparing to the standard Ti O₂ anode, the carbon nanotube-containing Ti O₂ anode with 0.2 wt.% DWCNTs has boosted up the photocurrent density (Jsc) by 43%.This paper summarizes the recent progress in DSSC technology for improving efficiency, focusing on the active layer in the photoanode, with a part of the DSSC consisting of dyes and a Ti OFor nearly two centuries, mankind has employed fossil fuels as the primary energy source, and now we are facing serious problems as a result.Excessive emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases leads to environmental risk .Such high energy output, however, has not been achieved due to thermodynamic and technical constraints as well as few other reasons.Conventional commercial solar cells, which use crystalline and polycrystalline silicon, achieve over 20% energy conversion efficiency for residential end users .A DSSC consists of a photoelectrode, counter electrode, and electrolyte.The photoelectrode is made up of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) glass substrate, a metal oxide such as mesoporous Ti O nanoparticles and a sensitizer such as ruthenium- (Ru-) complex dye.Studies have reported several different methods to improve the efficiency of DSSCs, such as the use of panchromatic sensitizers or 3-dimensional metal oxide nanostructures [10–14].This review highlights another huge pool of studies that report improvements in the efficiency of DSSCs, especially those that employ the use of Ti O nanotube array channels and how to overcome the barrier layer that exists at the bottom of these arrays to achieve a high PCE in DSSCs.