Jean Piaget’s theory focuses on how individuals think and how the thinking process is unique at different developmental stages.
Piaget describes the thinking process of four developmental stages.
Developmental theories should help counselors understand potential outlooks regarding the needs of individuals during the different stages of their lives.
Erikson believed that an individual’s interactions with others describe development.
The basic belief of these theories still provides the basis for many hypotheses in counseling.
Reviewing existing theories can help counselors better understand normal growth and development and gain insight into what individuals need to do to reach fulfillment in their lives.
Each of these stages is characterized by unique ways of thinking and therefore determines how adults interact with others.
He believed that children actively learn by doing, using the environment to stimulate their thinking. Because children learn best when they can manipulate, use hands-on activities, and make the abstract concrete, counselors may use the developing thinking of children throughout the elementary school years to plan appropriate guidance activities.
Just as our physicals selves are determined by both genetics and lifestyle, so are our emotional selves.
Considering cognitive, biological, and social, and emotional development throughout life would offer perspective, a guideline, and reasonable expectations.