Now another idea that emerged during the Roman kingdom is this idea of citizenship.Now it's important to realize today, in a lot of countries, we think of oh, everyone who's a formal resident of that country, you can view them as a citizen, or most of the people, you could think of citizens, especially maybe people born in a country. And when we go into this Roman kingdom, I'll remind, and I do this in many videos, we're not thinking about this sprawling Roman empire that we'll see several hundred years later.
And most of the slaves were people that they subjugated people that they conquered in other lands.
They might have been people who at least the authorities thought they committed a crime of some kind. So you had a large segment of the population that had no rights, that were considered slaves.
At that time, Rome was really just in control of Rome and over time, especially during the republic period, it starts to expand and eventually have hegemony or dominant power over the Mediterranean or parts of the Middle East, I should say, and in southern Europe. And what I'm about to draw actually stays true through most of Roman civilization.
If this white circle are the people who lived under Roman rule, only a subset were citizens. These were male landowners, citizens right over here.
But, for the most part, the patricians, they're the nobility, they're associated with the aristocracy, but the plebians, some of them become wealthy and powerful as well.
Now you're probably saying what about all of these other people?They had a lot of power, all the power resided in them, they were the executive, the legislative, they were the judicial, they even had religious power.But it's interesting to think of the idea of elected kings. Several of them were dynastic but it is an interesting idea.And it's important to realize that the Senate was not the only institution or the only position within the Roman republic. Now, consuls, even though it was considered a very high title, their power was very limited.The consuls were there and you could view the consuls as the executives, or if you think of a system like the United States, the executive power resides in the President, so it's analogous to the President. There was two of them at any given time, so I just drew the two consuls.And so, whenever you have something this long lasting, you could imagine the social and the political structures evolved over time.But let's begin with the period when it was a kingdom, because even then there were some things that were noteworthy and some social and political structures that continued into the republic period and even when it was an empire.And within the citizens, they were further divided between patricians, and you can think of them as the nobility, these were people and they became patrician based on what family they were born into.And it's based on this idea and the word literally comes from this idea that you are descended from the founding fathers of Rome. So all of the other ones were the plebians, right over here.Most historians don't accept that founding myth.But then it became they overthrew their last king in 509 BCE, Tarquin the Proud, and then they established the Roman republic, which was eventually then turned into an empire by Julius Caesar and Augustus.