In the first of these, called the antibody response, pathogens invading the body stimulate some specialized white blood cells called B-cells to produce antibodies, which are proteins that recognize and bind to specific structures on the surfaces of viruses or bacteria.
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Vaccination takes advantage of one of the most impressive aspects of human biology — immunological memory.
Essays Against Vaccinations
When the immune system is exposed to viruses or bacteria, it can “remember” their specific features, making it easier to recognize and fight them later in life. Adaptive immunity involves two broad categories of responses to infections.
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Most of these T-cells die shortly thereafter, but some survive and circulate, waiting for another attack from the same foe.
As with B-cells, some T-cells act as a reserve, ready to create more attacker T-cells.