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Across the board, a number of industries are stratified across the genders. These include differences in education choices, preferred job and industry, work experience, number of hours worked, and breaks in employment (such as for bearing and raising children).Men also typically go into higher paid and higher risk jobs when compared to women.Men and women have better visuospatial and verbal memory, respectively.
Girls are more commonly introduced to the colour pink, dolls, dresses, and playing house where they are taking care of the dolls as if they were children.
The norm of blue is for boys and pink is for girls is cultural and has not always historically been around.
However, multiple studies from OECD, AAUW, and the US Department of Labor have found that pay rates between males and females varied by 5–6.6% or, females earning 94 cents to every dollar earned by their male counterparts, when wages were adjusted to different individual choices made by male and female workers in college major, occupation, working hours, and maternal/parental leave.
Human capital theories refer to the education, knowledge, training, experience, or skill of a person which makes them potentially valuable to an employer.
As women enter an occupation, this reduces the amount of prestige associated with the job and men subsequently leave these occupations.
The entering of women into specific occupations suggests that less competent workers have begun to be hired or that the occupation is becoming deskilled.Some of these distinctions are empirically grounded while others appear to be socially constructed.Studies show the different lived experience of genders across many domains including education, life expectancy, personality, interests, family life, careers, and political affiliations.This has historically been understood as a cause of the gendered wage gap but is no longer a predominant cause as women and men in certain occupations tend to have similar education levels or other credentials.Even when such characteristics of jobs and workers are controlled for, the presence of women within a certain occupation leads to lower wages.Gender inequality is experienced differently across different cultures.There is a natural difference also in the relative physical strengths (on average) of the sexes, both in the lower body and more pronouncedly in the upper-body, though this does not mean that any given man is stronger than any given woman.This earnings discrimination is considered to be a part of pollution theory.This theory suggests that jobs which are predominated by women offer lower wages than do jobs simply because of the presence of women within the occupation.These factors result in 60% to 75% difference between men's and women's average aggregate wages or salaries, depending on the source.Various explanations for the remaining 25% to 40% have been suggested, including women's lower willingness and ability to negotiate salary and sexual discrimination.