Economic developments include the liberalisation of economies; the global expansion of trade; growing economic interdependence of countries (Ibid); the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions; the development of global financial centers; increased global capital flows; the growth of multinational corporations; and, the aforementioned expansion of MEIs.
Furthermore, there have been significant social and ideational developments such as the global spread of “liberal democracy” and capitalism subsequent to the Cold War; the expansion of neo liberal globalisation (Ibid); the simultaneous homogenisation of cultures and the localised reactions against the stretch of “Western” culture; the global movement of people; the development of “global cities”; and, the ideological expansion of the social arena for civil society and social movements among others.
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(1996); James Roseneau (1992), Robert O’Brien et al.
Frank Rosenau Dissertation Thesis Statement On Writing
(2000), Kenichi Ohmae (1995); and, Kenneth Waltz (1998), supplemented by additional supporting literature.
Although the concept of governance is not uniformly defined in the social sciences, its Latin origins suggest that governance pertains to the process of “steering” society and is most often used to describe authority, institutions, interests and actors within the state; wherein, rather than independently ruling a country, the role of the state would be to steer society by brokering competing interests and interacting with private and social actors.
According to Rosenau (1992), the concept of governance is more inclusive than government as it embraces “governmental institutions and informal, non government mechanisms whereby needs and wants are fulfilled” (4).