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During this time, and in previous decades, police administrators implemented strategies and used new technologies to increase the distance between police personnel and the public they served.
The growing emphasis on rapid response tactics also meant that police were less concerned with community problems than they were with arriving at a crime scene in the least possible amount of time.
Rapid response meant the police were acting fast but not necessarily being effective.
For example, a 1997 survey conducted by the Police Foundation in the United States found that 85 per cent of police departments reported having adopted community policing or were in the process of doing so (Skogan, 2004).
A more recent federal survey, with a much larger sample of American police departments (in cities with populations over 250,000) found that over 90 per cent of police services had full-time, trained community police officers in the field (Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2004).
Many police departments adopted top-down, militaristic, hierarchical management systems that imposed greater accountability on police managers and emphasized police professionalism.
Many have argued that advances in policing methods and technologies, such as motorized patrols, radio dispatching, and use of rapid response techniques, created a greater rift between the community and the police.
Police brutality often sparked urban disorder, and some members of the public perceived the police as being at the forefront of maintaining an unjust and discriminatory society (Gaines and Le Roy-Miller, 2006).
Perceptions of the police, particularly in terms of police legitimacy, have increasingly been viewed as important.
Finally, this section will examine the effectiveness of specific community policing initiatives and community policing efforts to reduce youth violence.
Our discussion ends with a brief examination of the various obstacles or challenges facing those who hope to implement effective community policing strategies.