This association often leads to the promotion of violent, aggressive and deviant behavior."The impact of deviant peer group influences on the crystallization of an antisocial developmental trajectory has been solidly documented." Aggressive adolescents who have been rejected by peers are also more likely to have a "hostile attribution bias", which leads people to interpret the actions of others (whether they be hostile or not) as purposefully hostile and aggressive towards them.
When parents commonly do not know where their children are, what their activities are, or who their friends are, children are more likely to truant from school and have delinquent friends, each of which are linked to offending.
A lack of supervision is also connected to poor relationships between children and parents.
Depending on the type and severity of the offense committed, it is possible for people under 18 to be charged and treated as adults.
In recent years a higher proportion of youth have experienced arrests by their early 20s than in the past.
Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers and courts, with it being common that juvenile systems are treated as civil cases instead of criminal, or a hybrid thereof to avoid certain requirements required for criminal cases (typically the rights to a public trial or to a jury trial).
A juvenile delinquent in the United States is a person who is typically below 18 (17 in Georgia, New York, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, New Hampshire, Texas, and Wisconsin) years of age and commits an act that otherwise would have been charged as a crime if they were an adult.Children with low intelligence are more likely to do badly in school.This may increase the chances of offending because low educational attainment, a low attachment to school, and low educational aspirations are all risk factors for offending in themselves.Repeated and/or violent offending is likely to lead to later and more violent offenses.When this happens, the offender often displays antisocial behavior even before reaching adolescence.These factors may lead to the child having low IQ and may increase the rate of illiteracy.Children brought up by single parents are more likely to start offending than those who live with both parents.Some scholars have concluded that this may reflect more aggressive criminal justice and zero-tolerance policies rather than changes in youth behavior.Juvenile crimes can range from status offenses (such as underage smoking/ drinking), to property crimes and violent crimes.Individual psychological or behavioral risk factors that may make offending more likely include low intelligence, impulsiveness or the inability to delay gratification, aggression, lack of empathy, and restlessness.Other risk factors that may be evident during childhood and adolescence include, aggressive or troublesome behavior, language delays or impairments, lack of emotional control (learning to control one's anger), and cruelty to animals.