Literature Review On Poverty

Literature Review On Poverty-54
While the concept that private sector can pursue profits and alleviate poverty on a large scale is not new, and economists, such as Milton Friedman and Friedman ().Challenging the common views which typically perceive little potential for private enterprises in engaging with the underprivileged people on a mutually positive basis, Prahalad and his co-authors argued that MNEs can raise their profits, while satisfying needs of people living in poverty.A great deal of design research has been undertaken in such low resource settings, and is discussed under different names, such as ‘community development engineering’, ‘humanitarian engineering’, ‘appropriate technology’, ‘design for development’, ‘design at the Base of the Pyramid’, etc.

While the concept that private sector can pursue profits and alleviate poverty on a large scale is not new, and economists, such as Milton Friedman and Friedman ().Challenging the common views which typically perceive little potential for private enterprises in engaging with the underprivileged people on a mutually positive basis, Prahalad and his co-authors argued that MNEs can raise their profits, while satisfying needs of people living in poverty.A great deal of design research has been undertaken in such low resource settings, and is discussed under different names, such as ‘community development engineering’, ‘humanitarian engineering’, ‘appropriate technology’, ‘design for development’, ‘design at the Base of the Pyramid’, etc.

Tags: 500 700 Word EssayHow To Write A Thesis For A Persuasive EssayPhysics Coursework For GcseAp Us History Dbq Essay Progressive EraConcrete Details In EssayReferral Cover Letters

In the 1970s, AT was typically considered as ‘intermediate technology’, placing them between traditional tools and techniques used in villages and advanced large-scale technologies used in the Western countries (Schumacher ). Prahalad, together with his colleagues, proposed that MNEs can enhance their profits, while alleviating poverty on a large scale (Prahalad and Lieberthal ).

Typically cited design requirements include, among others, simplicity, low-cost, use of locally available materials, small-scale, energy efficient, labour intensive to enhance employment opportunities, maintainable by local communities, and suitable for cultural and social contexts (e.g. Whilst the AT movement gained momentum after its concept was articulated in the 1970s, the concept was heavily criticised as the ATs failed to deliver sustainable and widespread impact on developing countries (Murphy et al. The AT movement was criticised as it represented stone-age technologies, discouraged competitiveness and industrial growth of developing countries, and was perceived as ‘intermediate’ or ‘second rate’ in terms of efficiency and quality (Carr ), the role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in designing products and services for the markets of underprivileged people in developing countries is evident in Prahalad’s Base of the Pyramid (BOP) concept. A key idea in Prahalad’s proposition was that MNEs can tap into the markets of poor people by selling them appropriately designed products and services, creating a win–win situation.

The concept of using design to improve life circumstances of marginalised people in developing countries can be traced back at least to ‘Design for the Real World’ and ‘Appropriate Technology’ movements, initiated and popularised by Victor Papanek and E. Schumacher, respectively, in the 1970s (Papanek and Fuller ).

In his book ‘Design for the Real World’, Papanek, an industrial designer, urged designers to address problems faced by the people in the Third World.

Google(); req('single_work'); $('.js-splash-single-step-signup-download-button').one('click', function(e){ req_and_ready('single_work', function() ); new c.

Design is essential to fulfil unmet or under-served needs of resource-poor societies, supporting their social and human development.Failures in transferring technologies from Western countries to developing countries in the 1950s and 1960s motivated the AT movement.The technologies, originally designed for the Western contexts, were not appropriate for contexts in developing countries due to large differences in cultural, political, social and other conditions (Nieusma and Riley ).presents concluding thoughts and offers recommendations for further research avenues, while employing a variety of methods with more consistent and thorough reporting of the studies.As such, the paper will be useful to those who are new to this field as well as to those who are experts in this field.Subsistence marketplaces, in contrast to markets in developed countries or relatively affluent regions, are characterised by a multitude of deprivations, such as deficits in infrastructure and capabilities of individuals and societies.Such deprivations combined with absence of traditional distribution ways, media channels, and infrastructure for undertaking market research lead to the requirement of bottom-up learning and design.Our purpose is to support the field to explain some of its present issues and to suggest further areas for continuation of scholarly exploration of this field.Following this introduction, the rest of this paper is organised as follows: Sect.In 1966, Schumacher established Intermediate Technology Development Group which now works under the name Practical Action where they aim at designing sustainable technologies to alleviate poverty in developing countries (Practical and Action ).Although the concept of AT was first coined by Schumacher, Mahatma Gandhi is considered as the founder of AT movement as he promoted the design of small and local technologies appropriate to satisfy needs of villages in India (Anthony ).

SHOW COMMENTS

Comments Literature Review On Poverty

  • Experiences of Parents and Children Living in Poverty
    Reply

    The scholarly literature on families experiencing poverty is sizable and has focused on a number of key topics. A 2010 review encompassing more than 1,000 books and articles published in the first decade of the 21st century identified several of these topics measures of poverty, causes of poverty, events that either trigger poverty or foster exits…

  • Literature review about poverty Heart Rate 190
    Reply

    Literature review about poverty. Assign keyboard shortcuts volume what does dog eat homework means, literary research paper about global warming application essay for.…

  • Literature review on poverty in social work
    Reply

    Separation of powers essays, how to write a review essay about a tv show new school creative writing solve division problems algebraic expressions joy luck club essay conflicting forces the essays of warren buffett revised edition 2017 buying a research paper top universities for creative writing majors in texas free art history research papers research paper on global warming examples mla 7.…

  • DOC CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES.
    Reply

    Gap-bridged by the Study The researchers review of Related Literature and Studies has been made, it was observed that the current studies were focused on the tracer studies of their respective colleges including then tracer studies of the AB Journalism Graduates of the past years in a way of having the general profile of these graduates and.…

  • CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
    Reply

    CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW In the two decades since HIV/AIDS was first identified, the body of research into the disease has been steadily growing. Today this research covers a wide range of topics ranging from strictly medical studies to the social and demographic implications of the study as well as to…

  • Literature Review Poverty Reduction Strategies -
    Reply

    CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGIES Over the past years, Governments in underdeveloped and developing countries in Africa and Latin America together with their development partners have examined and utilized a variety of alternative remedies geared towards alleviating poverty, especially the incidence of rural poverty T. S. Jayne 2003.…

  • Literature review on poverty and education -
    Reply

    Literature review on diabetes mellitus type 2 Literature review on diabetes mellitus type 2 goals of school supplies in business plan words their way homework ideas examples of a process essay how to succeed in a difficult situation drug essay in hindi. Supplemental essays purdue honors college best essay books for english skin care business.…

  • How To Write Literature Review Outline With Examples
    Reply

    The intention of this work is to invoke ones thought on the key steps that should be used when writing a review of the literature. Read on to find out how to write a literature review outline.…

  • Is poverty the mother of crime? Empirical evidence of the.
    Reply

    Atlantic Review of Economics – 1st Volume - 2014 Revista Atlántica de Economía – Volumen 1 - 2014 negative relationship between absolute or relative poverty and property crime with the under lying explanation that crime subsides with widespread chronic poverty by lowering returns to crime…

The Latest from my-trafic.ru ©