Climatically, Pakistan has dry, hot summers in general, and cool winters, with very cold winters in the northernmost Himalayan regions.Most of the Punjab plains receive on the average 15 inches (375 mm) of rain annually, which progressively decreases to the west from the Indian summer monsoons.
Meanwhile, President Asif Ali Zardari is the first sitting Pakistani president to have ever devolved extensive presidential powers to the prime minister, no small accomplishment in a country where the president has often enjoyed more power than the prime minister or parliament.
Zardari has also made unprecedented strides to pass power to the provinces, in order to mitigate the long-standing grievances of those in Balochistan, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly the North-West Frontier Province), as well as the tribal areas.
India could, if it wishes, gain control over the water of Pakistan’s canals by diverting water to its own territory, thus virtually choking off Pakistan’s agricultural base.
(The two countries reached an agreement in 1960, the Indus Waters Treaty, regarding the distribution of waters)This example of Pakistani dependence on India, which controls the headwaters of the tributaries of the Indus River, critical to Pakistan’s irrigated agriculture, illustrates the complementary nature of the two countries.
The Baluchistan Plateau is located in southwestern Pakistan.
It is a dry, rocky, and mostly barren plateau, inhabited by Baluchi tribesmen, nearly 4,000 to 7,000 feet (1,219 to 2,134 meters) in elevation that extends to the Makram coast, and is fringed by low, but rugged hills.
Economically, culturally and politically it is the country’s heartland.
The non-alluvial portions of the region are mainly in the northwest, where a dissected upland between the Jhelum and Indus rivers averages between 1,500 to 2,000 feet (457 to 610 meters) in the form of a range overlooking the Punjab plains.
Political separation based on the concentrations of Muslims and non-Muslims defy several facts of physical and economic geography.
The international borders show little regard for the established networks of railroads, irrigation canals and manufacturing.