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Read this essay to learn about the Motivation of Employees. As defined by Daft (1997), motivation refers to the forces interior or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. However, extrinsic (external) factors such as rewards and promotions also influence motivation.
This behaviour is goal-directed as it aims to fulfill some goal, that is, the need of the individual.
If employees’ behaviour is acceptable to managers (it contributes to goals of the organisation), it is followed by rewards.
The need is, therefore, the driving force that motivates human behaviour.“Motivation may be defined as the state of individual’s perspective which represents the strength of his or her propensity to exert effort toward some particular behaviour”.— Gibson“Motivation refers to expenditure of efforts towards a goal”.
— Dubrin“Motivation is the force that energizes behaviour, gives direction to behaviour and underlies the tendency to persist.” — Steers and Porter“Motivation is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces.
The work force is required to be self starters, highly ambitious, result-oriented and go-getters.
All work situations cannot be predicted and planned in view of the dynamic and changing market situations. Thus, the work force has to be kept highly motivated and committed, both externally and internally.Rewards satisfy their needs, but the behaviour does not come to an end because satisfaction of one need is followed by emergence of other needs.This reinforces their behaviour towards organisational activities and perpetuates further needs in them.The manager must, therefore, determine what motivates the human behaviour.An individual performs business tasks, in the first instance, not because he wants the organisational goals to be achieved but because that work will give him financial rewards through which he can satisfy his personal needs and desires.The goal-directed behaviour, thus, becomes a continuous process.On the contrary, if the behaviour is not suitably rewarded, and employee’s needs remain unsatisfied; he will not reinforce his behaviour towards the organisational activities and may change his action, change his need or look for other job opportunities.Motivation is a complex force because the factors that motivate people are complex and complicated.Financial incentives may be important for some and non-financial incentives may be important for others.When management was first studied in a scientific way during the twentieth century, Frederick Wins low Taylor worked to improve productivity of labour.He developed efficiency measures and incentive system where workers were paid more for meeting a standard higher than normal production. Therefore, workers seemed to be economically motivated.