In Oregon, the incidence of physician assisted suicide has been increased from 0.6 in 1000 deaths to 3 in 1000 deaths in 19 respectively .
Ethical Defense In the last revised of The International Code of Medical Ethics in the section which under the name of duties of physicians to patients states that "A physician shall always bear in mind the obligation to respect human life" .
Also in 2013, Vermont Patient Choice and Control at the End of Life Act has been in effect [22,23].
In 2016, California’s physician assisted dying law took effect according to the End of Life Option Act .
Which means knowingly and intentionally providing a terminally ill patient with the knowledge or means or both required to commit suicide, which also usually include counseling about lethal doses of certain drugs either by prescribing, supplying such lethal drugs or both .
Among countries that permit physician assisted suicide, person who has been diagnosed as terminally ill and who physically suffer from unresolved symptoms with life expectancy of 6 months or less can request from the physician to prescribe and/ or supply a lethal dose to self-administered to end his/her life .In these situations, physician assisted suicide is sometime applied, which is controversial legally and ethically issue .Physician assisted suicide used interchangeably with physician assisted death and assisted suicide, is suicide undertaken with the aid of another person, sometime a physician (American Heritage Dictionary Entry).Similarly, in laws of many countries physician assisted suicide is illegal.Therefore, the author refutes the use of physician assisted suicide for terminally ill patients in order to end their suffering and end their life, and use palliative care instead it.Therefore, the aim of this paper is to create an argumentative essay to argue the use of physician assisted suicide for terminally ill patients as a last resort to end their suffer and end their life, while taking the legal and ethical points of view of opponents and proponents into consideration.The recent advance of the life -saving interventions and mechanical devices, that result from the medical technology has prolong dying process, which raise need to end of life care .Also, in Finland, is not a crime and connected to end of life care .Opponents The ethical principles of beneficence (working to achieve the patient’s best interest), nonmaleficence (avoidance of harm), patient autonomy respect, as well as promotion of justice and fairness (American College of Physicians Ethics, Professionalism, and Human Rights Committee, 2013).The purpose of this literature review is to discuss the opponent’s and proponent’s points of view related to physician assisted suicide, from the legal and ethical sides.Opponents Physician assisted suicide is illegal in china under Article 232 “whoever intentionally commits homicide shall be sentenced to death, life imprisonment or fixed term imprisonment of not less than 10 years; if the circumstances are relatively minor, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than 3 years but not more than 10 years”, and Article 233 “whoever negligently causes death to another person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than 3 years but not more than 7 years; if the circumstances are relatively minor, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than 3 years, except as otherwise specifically provided in this Law” of the Criminal Law of People’s Republic of China .